ISSA 2009 Green, Clean and Healthy – Legislative Forum

ISSA / CIRI Partnership: A Clean Standard for K-12 Schools – April 14, 2009 – Dr. Steven Spivak
Science Advisor, Cleaning Industry Research Institute (CIRI)

Dr. Spivak has 30+ years in academe plus the cleaning industry.


•    Thirty+ years Univ. of Maryland faculty and Dept. chair in fire protection engineering,;  textile science specialty.
•    Also 30+ years consulting with professional cleaners and maintenance professionals.
•    Chair of CIRI Science Advisory Council and Chair, CIRI Clean Standards Science Comm.  
•    Project manager for the Clean Standards Research partnership with ISSA and CIRI.  
CIRI 2007 symposium outcome: work toward clean standards
•    Expressed interest for CIRI to undertake new research to promote healthy cleaning.
•    New measurement tools to assess Clean; need for certified professionals and standards.
•    Many discussions led to a recent, working partnership between CIRI and ISSA.
•    Joint project to establish uniform, science based definitions of “clean” for representative surfaces presented to the young in our K-12 schools.  

CIRI’s interests include cleaning green; science of cleaning; healthy indoor environments.


•    CIRI’s Vision is “Only Science Can See.”
•    The results of effective, proper, healthy, high performance cleaning must be measured.
•    The “eyeball check” on cleaning efficacy is both insufficient – and may actually be erroneous.
•    “Oh, we’ve done that cleaning” no longer is sufficient and valid, appropriate for 21st century.
•    Cleaning, care, facilities, building maintenance industries must move to a new paradigm.

Common themes are green cleaning, and healthy cleaning.


•    One objective is to stimulate thinking on how to capture and measure an aura of health and make it an integral and well publicized part of the maintenance and cleaning of K-12 schools.
•    ISSA and CIRI’s goal is that this research, and subsequent ISSA standards based thereon, become the ultimate measure of what is not only clean, but also in a state that is conducive to the health of the occupants and the indoor environment of typical K-12 schools.
Science Based Measures Foster Results- Based Cleaning
•    “This type of information creates a power shift. It puts power back into the hands of users [manager, cleaner, custodian], who will now be able to separate fact from fiction, and accurately document cleaning performance. Custodians [or clean care technicians] will no longer depend solely on claims, recommendations of manufacturers, [distributors], or industry gurus. Measurement will give them the tools and data they need [to excel]…”

CIRI and ISSA have set out their thesis and goals.


•    Thesis: that any future clean standard for schools K-12 be based on rigorous, reliable, statistically valid data and measurements of surface contamination and cleaning; by using rapid field detection instruments and survey procedures, to assess and to set reasonable, achievable levels of what is hygienically “clean” on a variety of representative school surfaces. 

•    Thesis and results: … and that the means to achieve this outcome are rugged, practical, in-field systems that can be utilized as well as understood by a coterie of trained, certified inspectors and investigators schooled in the art and science of “Clean Standards for Schools.”
•    Logical extension of ISSA’s signal work with CIMS- Cleaning Industry Management Standard, & CIRI leadership in cleaning science research.

New Paradigm is Clean for Health, Measure the Results


•    As only science properly sees “clean”- the  cleaning, facilities and buildings maintenance industries must adopt the paradigm of a science based approach and use of measurements.
•    Focus must be on cleaning first for health and hygiene, using science to measure cleanliness.
•    This is in addition to cleaning for appearance, necessity, preservation of property values, quality and the indoor environment.  


CIRI 2007 established Clean Standards Science Comm.


•    Dr. Steve Spivak, Univ of Maryland and CIRI is clean standards science project manager.
•    Dr. Eugene Cole, Brigham Young Univ (UT) is project research manager and co-investigator.
•    Dr. Richard Shaughnessy, Univ Tulsa (OK), director of Indoor Air Quality Research program is co-principal investigator.
•    A growing international team of academicians, experienced research scientists, renowned statisticians- including colleagues in Europe.


CIRI Science Advisors, Field Testing to supplement Clean Standards.


•    CIRI has renowned expertise in its Science Advisory Council also available.
•    CIRI enlisted full cooperation and participation of a major urban school district in the research.
•    Clean standards field research will include actual student performance data; morbidity or absenteeism rates, plus [anon.] math and language standard grade scores.
CIRI Science Advisors, Field Testing to supplement Clean Standards
•    Statistically correlate student scores, benefits with levels of cleanliness, IAQ in classrooms!
CIRI Science Laboratory and Field Testing, plus other collaborations
•    Research work on diverse school surfaces, comparing several ATP means and other instrumental approaches to assess “clean.”
•    How do these different methods compare?
•    Begun field investigations on diverse school surfaces, materials in major school district and in two day care centers.
•    Using both qualitative (survey instrument) and quantitative methods such as ATP, others.   
Cleaning science perspective on the move to healthy schools.
•    Requires a multi-faceted approach – effective cleaning, high performance cleaning measures.
•    New thinking will help to clarify language, product claims, definition of “clean,” terms.
•    Promoting “green” can also promote “clean” and healthy in schools, when actually measured for effectiveness by scientifically valid means.  
•    New emphasis on standardized measures to denote “clean,” benefits of cleaning for health.
Cleaning scientists’ perspective to improve health and hygiene in K-12 schools
•    CIRI is integrating and will be incorporating ideas of cleaning scientists, public health specialists, microbiologists, research scientists.
•    Cleaning + health is major focus of CIRI science, jan san business and now educators/schools.
•    Special credit and recognition are due to Drs.  Eugene Cole, Richard Shaughnessy, others.
•    International research team of scientists is being assembled and willing to cooperate.

Close coordination fostered between CIRI + ISSA principals.


•    CIRI Clean Standards Science Comm/Spivak reports both to CIRI Exec Comm, and to the ISSA + CIRI Joint Task Force.
•    Developing collaboration with ISSA staff and industry specialists, other organizations.
•    News releases and public information on this program regularly forthcoming from ISSA, CIRI.
•    Outcome is ISSA Clean Standard for Schools, with trained, certified professionals, assessors.


Summary of basic concepts, terms and ideas


•    “Clean” is a condition free of unwanted matter. It  is the systematic, environmental  management process used to achieve a clean condition.
•    “Only science can see” [and measure] effective cleaning for health and hygiene.
•    Cleaning solely for appearance will be no longer acceptable. It is cleaning for health first, along with improved visual and physical appearances.
•    Schools and youth among future beneficiaries.
Clarifying basic terms and ideas
•    CIRI efforts focused on health, wellness and measurable outcomes for our school children and improved conditions in K-12 schools.  
•    ISSA efforts will focus on education, training, standards development, together with CIRI…
•    What’s in the future? A new way of thinking and delivering “clean” for suppliers, distributors, service contractors, cleaners on the ‘front lines.’


What’s been the health news?


•    Hospital acquired Infections expanding to community acquired infection- and in schools.
•    MRSA, norovirus, e-coli, salmonella and other microbes are a regular part of school news reports; with serious, costly consequences.

•    CIRI and ISSA choose to play a leading role by promoting ways to measure healthy cleaning, new performance standards and ISSA industry programs focused on K-12 schools.
Understanding requirements of health and hygiene in schools.
•    Measures for effective cleaning must know:
•    the specific environment, contaminants and unwanted matter to be isolated and removed,
•    means to measure, separate, isolate and contain these contaminants,
•    safe and effective transporting of substances from the object and microenvironments, and
•    proper transition, relocation or disposal of the unwanted substances, soils, pathogens, etc.  
Without effective cleaning, unwanted matter collects and concentrates as a health threat.
•    Without regular, effective and high performance cleaning, unwanted and/or unhealthy matter can build up to unhygienic or unsafe levels.
•    Most persons spend the high majority (80-90%) of their time indoors. Healthy IAQ, IEQ is imperative for student wellness, performance.  
•    Special focus and benefits to schools, youth, children, asthmatics, vulnerable populations.
Proper hygiene and cleaning is the precursor to infection control.
•    Good hygiene includes absence of visible and less visible soils, malodors or harmful levels of bacteria, other microorganisms.
•    Process of high performance cleaning directly contributes to reduction in pathogens, disease prevention; adds to state of wellness and health.
•    But we must be able to measure the efficacy and success of our school cleaning procedures, as cleaning can also have a major impact on reducing spread of disease and infections.

Recent interest in science based measurement tools


•    Qualitative assessment of school conditions.
•    Quantitative measures of bio-loading, contaminants on school surfaces.
•    Field based, rapid bioluminescence based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in all organics.
•    Rapid fungal and/or bacterial measures; petri films, plates and colony forming unit measures.
•    Settled dust, airborne particle counters; indoor environmental quality conditions to be assessed in classrooms throughout target schools.   


Cleaning and custodial personnel must learn to measure and assess.


•    ATP (or adenosine triphosphate) measurement technology, one of well known resources recently introduced to jan san industry.
•    But there are at least 7 or 8 ATP meters, each with their own unique measurement systems.
•    Hygiena, Neogen, Charm, Kikkoman, Merck, BioControl, BioReveal, 3M/BioTrace, et al.
•    Which one(s) to use? How sensitive are each?
•    How low and reliably “clean” can one go?
What are relationships among, between ATP measures?
•    “I’ve been fascinated by the cleaning and measurement concept and using ATP for monitoring cleanliness. Although this is well and good, I’m finding that there is no consistency in sampling and monitoring techniques. Even worse, I can find no scientific reference that cites the numbers given by the ATP manufacturers on when things are considered clean or not clean.”
                 Source: Personal commentary, Powitz to Spivak on ATP, 2009.   


Cleaning must provide a safer and better learning environment.


•    The offending soils, unwanted matter and pathogens must be reduced, removed and/or eliminated (espec. before disinfecting).

•    Scientific measures of bio-loading, bio-films present, surface contamination provide the “laboratory” by which to measure, quantify, assess and decide how well or clean are, and can be, realistic school conditions.
•    Reality check; to correlate levels measured with positive and negative student outcomes.
Cleaning professionals must engage with scientific measures of clean and healthy.
•    CIRI research focus is on high touch, constant contact surfaces of several types in schools.
•    Some are in areas that are seldom cleaned- such as desk tops, walls, gym mats, etc.
•    Current research ongoing in conj. with a major urban school district; plus day care centers.  
•    Examples include multiple types of materials and surfaces, some in common use areas that are often overlooked, neglected, not cleaned?


Cleaning professionals face school administrator queries on health.


•    Queries on effective cleaning methods. But what methods to measure the results?  
•    Whom to rely on for epidemic, pandemic related guidance and control strategies in schools?
•    Providing timely, rigorous and valid advice, information and also healthy cleaning services to institutional clients and schools.
•    Inquiries about health risks, infection control and disease becoming a regular occurrence.     
What’s changed for cleaning professionals, infection control?
•    Growing dialogue between scientists, public health specialists and building service contractors, facilities care and cleaning professionals, jan san and product industry.  
•    Recently established organizations such as CIRI excited to be doing cleaning research; elevating the science of care and cleaning; educating cleaning industry on the language, technology and science of cleaning.

Cleaning contractors, managers have a vital role to play.


•    “Effective cleaning takes place in the form of personal hygiene on the part of the infected human so as to contain, destroy, remove or inhibit the life of the bio-pathogenic organism or its toxic byproducts… Also rapid response in the form of effective cleaning of contaminated surfaces will break the transmission chain.”   
    …Quote from Dr. Michael A. Berry, Effective Cleaning & Health, in Cleaning & Restoration (2007), plus a new series of articles in Cleaning and Maintenance Management (CMM), 2009.
Industry now taking the lead and seeing the larger picture
•    Cleaning contractors, clean + green specialists are among the “first responders” in times of health threat, school infections, epidemic.
•    High performance cleaning, highly trained and certified personal can aid school hygiene and respond best to high risk threats.  
•    Healthy environments through cleaning science and measurement is the future.
•    Better trained, certified personnel will become available and be the leaders in our industry.
Foundations of cleaning science and health now available
•    All CIRI cleaning science presentations are available from 2007 and 2008 symposiums.
•    Basics of cleaning science, videos + papers- CIRI’s 1st -2007 and 2nd -2008 symposiums on cleaning science foundations, and health: an 8-DVD set of presentations, Q+A and PowerPt slides are available for purchase from CIRI web site, [US $295.] or fax order request to +1-518-456-6445.  

Note: this outline was taken directly from Dr. Spivaks’ presentation.